Archive for optical communication

Do You Know About CFP/CFP2/CFP4 Optical Transceivers

Because the size of the CFP optical transceiver is too large to meet the high-density requirements of Data Center, the CFP-MSA board defined two new CFP series optical transceivers: CFP2 optical transceiver and CFP4 optical transceiver. Therefore, there are three types of optical transceivers in the 100G CFP series based on different sizes of the form factors. In this article, we are going to talk about CFP / CFP2 / CFP4 in detail.

An Overview of CFP / CFP2 / CFP4

CFP optical transceiver is largest, CFP2 optical transceiver is one half of the CFP, and CFP4 optical transceiver is one quarter of the CFP. The size of these three modules is shown as below. CFP / CFP2 / CFP4 cannot be used interchangeably, but they can be used simultaneously in the same system.

CFP optical transceiver supports transmission on a single-mode and multi-mode fiber at a variety of rates, protocols, and link lengths, including all the physical media dependent (PMD) interfaces included in the IEEE 802.3ba standard. CFP optical transceiver is based on the Small Form Factor Pluggable Optical transceiver (SFP) interface and is larger in size to support 100 Gbps data transmission. CFP optical transceiver can support a single 100G signal, OTU4, one or more 40G signals, OTU3 or STM-256 / OC-768. There are mainly three kinds of 100G CFP optical transceivers: CFP 100GBASE-SR10, CFP 100GBASE-LR4 and CFP 100GBASE-ER4.

100G CFP2 optical transceivers are commonly used as 100G Ethernet interconnects and deliver higher transmission efficiencies than CFP optical transceivers. The smaller size also makes them suitable for higher density cabling. CFP2 100GBASE-SR10, CFP2 100GBASE-LR4 and CFP 2 100GBASE-ER4 are three mostly-used CFP2 optical transceivers in the current market.

Compared with CFP / CFP2 optical transceiver, 100G CFP4 optical transceiver has the same rate but the transmission efficiency has greatly improved. Besides, the power consumption is reduced and the cost is lower than CFP2. CFP4 optical transceiver has irreplaceable advantages. We will discuss it in the second part.

The Advantages of CFP4 Optical Transceiver

1. Higher transmission efficiency: The early 100G CFP optical transceiver, through 10*10G channel, to 100G transmission rate, and now 100G CFP4 optical transceiver through 4*25G channel, 100G transmission, so the transmission efficiency is higher and more stable.

2. Smaller size: CFP4 optical transceiver is one-fourth of the CFP, and is the smallest optical transceiver in the CFP series optical transceiver.

3. Module integration is higher: CFP2 integration is 2 times of CFP, CFP4 integration is four times of CFP.

4. Lower power consumption and cost: CFP4 optical transceiver transmission efficiency has been improved significantly, but the power consumption is decreased and the system cost is lower than CFP2.

In Conclusion:

By learning the above information about 100G CFP / CFP2 / CFP4 optical transceiver, you may have some further understanding about the optical transceiver series. Gigalight not only has variety kinds of 10G/40G/100G/200G optical transceivers, but also provides customers with an online e-commerce platform – inFiberone to meet their needs. More professional tutorials and solutions about optical transceivers and other optical components, you can visit its official website.

What Is the Impact of 5G on Optical Communication?

Since Ovum released its latest 5G subscriber forecast in December 2016, two major changes have taken place in the 5G market. First and foremost, in March of this year, 3GPP announced the acceleration of the development of some 5G standards to make it possible to standardize on commercial 5G deployments by 2019, one year ahead of the previous deployment schedule. In addition, with the acceleration of the 5G standard set-up, T-Mobile US, one of the major carriers, announced for the first time a nationwide 5G network deployment and the United States will be one of the largest in the world.

At present, 5G is in the crucial stage of the formation of technical standards. Major countries and operators in the world have started the 5G test in succession and successively issued strategic plans to carry out industrial layout and seize strategic high ground. China is also actively promoting the 5G technology research and industrialization, 5G technology research and development testing, international standardization support continue to make new progress. Recently, more than three major operators 5G infrastructure, total spending within seven years will reach 180 billion U.S. dollars heavy news came out, the 5G topic to an unprecedented peak.

As we all know, the future of 5G depends on small base stations. When the coverage of base stations is getting smaller and smaller, the number of base stations will increase exponentially. Taking the example of 3.5GHz, the number of base stations of 3.5GHz is more than the number of base stations of 800MHz and 1.8GHz Doubles. If it is planned more than 6GHz, the number of base stations will be more. If it is planned to 26GHz above, it does not know it will reach how many times. Therefore, a substantial increase in the number of base stations is an inevitable result, and the interconnection between base stations requires a lot of fiber. It is reported that at present, the number of base stations in China has reached more than 5 million, while the future development of 5G, conservative forecasts will reach 10 million or more, if the high-band, or even more.

Obviously, optical communication and 5G have met by chance. Accordingly, what is the impact of 5G on optical communications? The opportunities that 5G brings to optical communication are mainly including three parts: optical fibers, optical transceivers and optical network.

  1. First, optical fiber is the first beneficiary. 5G band is high and the number of base stations may be 2-3 times. If following the full coverage requirements, according to Fiber Broadband Association estimates, 5G fiber usage will be 16 times more than 4G. Consider China’s 4G base station density is very high, the urban area only a few hundred meters spacing, it is estimated that the amount of 5G fiber is 4G 2-3 times.
  1. Second, optical transceiver module is the second beneficiary. Assuming that the 5G base station is 2-3 times as much as 4G, considering the medium / backhaul module, it is expected to bring tens of millions of 25GHz high-speed optical module usage. 5G flat architecture to the traditional huge capacity and cost pressures, which requires a large number of optical transceivers to support.
  1. Moreover, high-speed optical access network systems and optical devices are the third beneficiaries. The 5G architecture enables several decades of backhaul / midamble / preamble capacity up to tens of hundreds of Gbps levels and requires the introduction of 25G / 50G based CWDM or WDM for tunable lasers, tunable filters and CWDM / WDM devices High cost performance requirements; for TWDM PON systems, the demand for eCPRI and even edge ROADM systems is likely to increase significantly.

To sum up, we are currently at the pinnacle of opportunities and challenges in the 5G era. As the leading optical communications industry and optical component manufacturer in the 5G era, Gigalight has been closely following the market and moving ahead of 2016 in preparation for the beginning of 5G optical device product lines. At present, Gigalight owns a complete line of professional optical modules and other products. In particular, a large number of high-speed new products are launched in last year: 100G QSFP28 CWDM4, 100G QSFP28 PSM4, and 200G QSFP DD SR8.

Do You Know 100G Optical Transceivers?

In recent years, with the rapid growth of users’ demand for transmission links of 40G and 100G optical transceivers, cloud computing, mobile broadband and IPTV users have also increasingly requested bandwidth. 40G links have been deployed for several years now and 40G optical transceivers are ubiquitous in the data center. In the past two years, 100G optical transceivers have been rapidly developed in the Data Center market due to the development of optical industry centered on « 100G network deployment. » At present, 100G optical transceivers on the market mainly include: CXP optical transceiver, CFP optical transceiver, CFP2 optical transceiver, CFP4 optical transceiver and QSFP28 optical transceiver. Here we are going to introduce you the several main types of 100G optical transceivers. How much do you know about 100G optical transceivers? The post may give you an answer.


  1. CXP Optical Transceiver


CXP optical transceiver transmission rate is up to 12 × 10Gbps and supports hot swappable. « C » stands for 12 in hexadecimal, Roman « X » stands for 10 Gbps for each channel, and « P » for a hot pluggable pluggable. The CXP optical transceivers are targeted at the high-speed computer market and complement the CFP optical transceivers in Ethernet data centers. Technically, CFP optical transceivers and multimode fiber are both used for short-distance data transmission. Since multimode fiber markets require high-density panels, their dimensions have not been truly optimized in the multimode fiber market.


CXP optical transceiver is 45 mm long and 27 mm wide. It has a larger size than XFP optical transceiver or CFP optical transceiver and therefore it provides a higher density network interface. In addition, CXP optical transceiver is a copper connector system designated by the Wireless Broadband Trade Association that supports 12 ports for 100 GbE, 3 10G link for 40 GbE or 12 10GbE Fiber Channel or 12 × QDR link transmission of wireless broadband signals.


  1. CFP / CFP2 / CFP4 Optical Transceiver


The CFP Multi-Source Agreement (MSA) defines the requirements for hot-pluggable optical transceivers that are used for 40G and 100G network transmission, including next-generation high-speed Ethernet (40GbE and 100GbE). CFP optical transceiver supports transmission on a single-mode and multi-mode fiber at a variety of rates, protocols, and link lengths, including all the physical media dependent (PMD) interfaces in the IEEE 802.3ba standard. 100G network has three PMDs: CFP 100GBASE-SR10 can transmit 100m, CFP 100GBASE-LR4 can transmit 10km, CFP 100GBASE-ER4 can transmit 40km.


CFP optical transceiver is based on the Small Form Factor Pluggable Optical transceiver (SFP) interface and is larger in size to support 100Gbps data transmission. The electrical interface for the CFP optical transceiver uses 10 x 10 Gbps channels for transmission in each direction (RX, TX) and therefore supports 10 x 10 Gbps and 4 x 25 Gbps interworking. CFP optical transceiver can support a single 100G signal, OTU4, one or more 40G signals, OTU3 or STM-256 / OC-768.


Although CFP optical transceiver can achieve 100G data applications, but its large size can no longer meet the needs of high-density data center. In this case, the CFP-MSA committee defines two other forms: CFP2 and CFP4 optical transceivers. The figure below shows the size comparison of CFP, CFP2 and CFP4 optical transceivers:


  1. QSFP28 Optical Transceiver


Similarly, as a small size 100G optical transceiver, QSFP28 optical transceiver is also receiving more and more attention. As its name implies, the QSFP28 optical transceiver has the same design philosophy as the QSFP optical transceiver. The first generation QSFP optical transceiver has four Tx and Rx ports with a rate of 10 Gbps per channel. For QSFP28 optical transceivers, QSFP optical transceivers can send and receive up to 28 Gbps of data per channel. Compared with CFP4 optical transceiver, QSFP28 optical transceiver size is smaller than CFP4 optical transceiver only. Although the QSFP28 optical transceiver offers a density advantage over the CFP4 optical transceiver, the higher maximum power consumption of the CFP4 optical transceiver gives it an advantage over longer distances for optical transmission. There are many kinds of 100G QSFP28 optical transceivers in the market, among them; QSFP28 CWDM4 and QSFP28 PSM4 are the latest most popular optical transceiver modules that are widely used for Data Center.


  1. CPAK Optical Transceiver


There is another 100G optical transceiver called CPAK on the market. The CPAK optical transceiver is the new module type popular this year. The appearance is similar to the Cisco optical transceiver, but the interface uses the IEEE standard and supports compatibility with other interfaces.


100G optical transceivers are available in a wide range of options. In addition, 100G AOC (Active Optical Cable) will also be introduced to the market for short-distance interconnection and 100G migration applications, which will challenge 100G optical transceivers. At the same time, with the rapid development of technology, 100G optical transceivers will become more cost-effective, and 100G network applications will be getting closer and closer to us. For more details about 100G optical transceivers, please contact us.

QSFP28 Optical Transceiver Is a More Ideal Solution for 100G Optical Network?

Before the advent of the 100GBASE QSFP28 optical transceiver (an optical transceiver that can be used to support 100G transmission), the development direction of the 100G network is 10G → 40G → 100G. After the 100GBASE QSFP28 optical transceiver appears, 10G → 25G → 100G or 10G → 25G → 50G → 100G development model began to spread widely in the industry, and now there are already some data centers began to adopt this method to achieve 10G to 100G upgrade. There are all kinds of 100G QSFP28 optical transceivers in the market, like QSFP28 CWDM4, QSFP28 PSM4, QSFP28 100GBASE-SR4, and QSFP28 100GBASE-LR4, etc.


So, the question is why 100GBASE QSFP28 optical transceiver is so ideal for 100G optical network? Will QSFP28 optical transceiver completely replace other 100G optical transceiver? Will QSFP28 optical transceiver change the development of data center? Maybe the post can give you an answer if you are interested.


The Advantages of QSFP28 Optical Transceiver


The cost and power consumption of data center is one of the important factors that its builder needs to consider, which is also an important driving force for the development of the optical communication market. Reviewing the development of 100G optical transceivers, the packaging styles (CFP, CFP2, CFP4) and the standard development and improvement also mainly focus on low cost and low power consumption. The QSFP28 optical transceiver meets these requirements. Compared with other 100G optical transceivers, QSFP28 optical transceiver has following advantages: port density, power consumption, and cost.


  1. Port density


The first generation of 100G optical transceiver is a very large CFP optical transceiver, and then appeared CFP2 and CFP4 optical transceiver, CFP4 optical transceiver which is the latest generation of 100G optical transceiver, the width of only CFP optical transceiver 1/4, package Size and QSFP + optical transceiver package size. The QSFP28 optical transceiver is packaged in a smaller package than the CFP4 optical transceiver, which means that the QSFP28 optical transceiver has a higher port density on the switch. In fact, a total of 36 QSFP28 optical transceivers can be installed on the front panel of a 1RU switch.


  1. Power Consumption


The power consumption of QSFP28 optical transceiver usually does not exceed 3.5W while that of other 100G optical transceivers is usually between 6W and 24W. From this, QSFP28 optical transceiver consumes much lower power than other 100G optical transceivers.


  1. Cost


Now the data center is mainly 10G network architecture, the interconnection solutions are mainly 10GBASE-SR optical transceiver and duplex LC multimode fiber jumper, if the existing 10G network architecture based on the direct upgrade to 40 / 100G network Will save a lot of time and cost. Therefore, one of the major interconnection trends in data centers is to upgrade from 10G network to 40 / 100G network without changing the existing duplex multimode infrastructure. In this case, MPO / MTP branch able optical cable is undoubtedly the ideal solution for 10G to 40 / 100G upgrade.


Will QSFP28 Optical Transceiver Change Data Center?


QSFP28 optical transceiver can be used without going through the 40G directly from 25G to 100G. In addition, the four 25Gb / s transmission channels of the QSFP28 optical transceiver also comply with the 100G Ethernet standard. In the 100G optical fiber link consisting of QSFP28 optical transceivers, the 100G uplink is composed of four 25G links, and the network structure of each 25G downlink is exactly the same as that of the 10G network. The transmission capacity of the entire network greatly increased. Therefore, the 10G → 25G → 100G upgrade can greatly simplify the data center cabling system and reduce the cost and cable density of the cabling system compared with the 10G → 40G → 100G upgrade.


Does QSFP28 Completely Replace Other 100G Optical Transceivers?


Although the QSFP28 optical transceiver has many advantages, it is only one of many solutions for a 100G network and is best for specific applications such as data centers and server rooms. Therefore, other 100G optical transceivers will also have a place in the 100G network. For more details about 100G optical transceivers, please visit Infiberone.

100G Optical Transceivers: Types and Standards

As people demand higher and higher bandwidth, 100G networks has been developed rapidly. 100G optical module is an important part of 100G network. Now, there are several important standards and types of 100G optical transceivers. This post will introduce the related knowledge of 100G optical module in detail.

Types of 100G Optical Transceivers

The form factors of 100G optical transceivers mainly include: CFP, CFP2, CFP4 and QSFP28. To compare their advantages, the main factor to consider is the data center costs and power consumption.

CFP optical transceiver supports all C-band wavelengths tunable. It is able to complete the link detection by using a common optical dual binary modulation format ODB. The power consumption is less than 24W.

The volume of CFP2 optical module is one-half the CFP, whose integration is 2 times of CFP. It can complete the wide dynamic input range based on SOA to achieve stable admission sensitivity. It supports a full CFP optical module and its low power consumption is lower than 9W.

The volume of CFP4 optical transceiver is one-half the CFP2’s, its integration is twice that of CFP2. The front panel port density is also doubled compared with CFP2. CFP4 optical module MSA protocol supports the same rate of CFP2 and CFP2s. The transmission power has increased significantly, but the power consumption has dropped significantly, only about half of the original, the system cost is lower than the CFP2. In addition, CFP4 optical module select 4 * 25 form, through the 425G channel to complete 100G transmission, higher transmission power, more stable.

QSFP28 optical transceiver module form factor style is smaller than the CFP4 optical module. QSFP28 optical module power consumption is generally not more than 3.5W; the use of QSFP28 optical module can directly upgrade through the 40G to 100G, the cost is lower. There are all kinds of 100G QSFP28 optical transceivers in the market, like QSFP28 100GBASE-CWDM4, QSFP28 100GBASE-PSM4, QSFP28 100GBASE-SR4, and QSFP28 100GBASE-LR4, etc.

What Is the 100G Optical Transceiver Standard

Since the coming of 100G networks, IEEE, Multi-SAource Agreement (MSA) industry alliances and other agencies have formulated a number of standards for 100G optical modules. Among the many standards, the PSM4 and CWDM4 standards are developed by the Multi-Source Agreement (MSA) industry group, which are more suitable for the mainstream 100G QSFP28 optical modules on the market today. The following table is the specific circumstances of some common 100G optical transceiver standard:



Connector and Fiber

Cabling Reach



24f MPO, pinned parallel MMF, 10-fiber Tx, 10-fiber Rx 850 nm

100 meters on OM3150 meters on OM4



12f MPO, pinned parallel MMF, 4-fiber Tx, 4-fiber Rx 850 nm

100 meters on OM4



LC receptacles duplex (2) SMF, 1310 nm, 4λx25G WDM

10 kilometers on SMF



12f MPO, pinned parallel MMF, 4-fiber Tx, 4-fiber Rx 850 nm

40 kilometers on SMF

100G PSM4


12f MPO, pinned parallel SMF, 4-fiber Tx, 4-fiber Rx 1310 nm

500 meters on SMF

100G CWDM4


LC receptacles duplex (2) SMF, 1271–1331 nm, 4λx25G CWDM

2 kilometers on SMF

100G SWDM4

SWDM Alliance(preproduction)

LC, receptacles duplex (2) MMF, 850–950 nm, 4λx25G SWDM


100G CLR4

100G CLR4 Alliance

LC receptacles duplex (2) SMF, 1271–1331 nm, 4λx25G CWDM

2 kilometers on SMF


The 100G PSM4 standard is introduced primarily to reduce the cost of expensive 100GBASE-LR4 optical modules. The 100G PSM4 optical transceiver is a single-mode, parallel, four-channel optical module designed for applications in the data center of 500 meters.

The 100G CWDM4 standard is mainly formulated for the deployment of a 2km 100G link in a data center. The interface of a 100G CWDM4 optical transceiver conforms to the 2km 100G optical interface specification of duplex single mode optical fiber, and the transmission distance can reach 2km.


What Are the Applications of 100G Ethernet?

First of all, under the premise of standard maturity, it also needs real network demand driven and is in the interest of operators. The main factors of bandwidth demand include:

  1. The increasing business is based on IP, as it is now described by ALL IP;
  2. Almost all the IP packets are sent from the source to sink, the whole process is encapsulated in the Ethernet frame;
  3. The technology used in Ethernet over TDM /Ethernet has matured and traditional voice compatibility is no longer a problem;
  4. Ethernet encapsulation is simpler and cheaper than SONET / SDH encapsulation.

These decisions to upgrade the Ethernet interface to 100 Gbit / s are both objective and urgent. Network communications can be achieved on 100G Ethernet networks with « accelerated network communications and improved application performance », enabling fast access to data stored in data Center of the various applications, implementation of bandwidth management, cache, compression, path optimization and protocol acceleration and other functions. For details, see the application scenario in Figure 2 [9]. For the application at the convergence layer, the downlink port is switching to 10 Gbit / s and the uplink can only use 10 Gbit / s port link aggregation. If there is a 100G Ethernet interface, you can improve the management, distribution and efficiency of data flow. For the data center, with the increase of 10 Gbit / s interface, there is also the demand for upstream and inter-connected high-speed interfaces. For the efficient transmission of backbone networks, we also expect the 100G high- Interface and transmission maturity.

The P802.3ba standard has fully considered the maturity of related standards and technologies of the electrical interface when adopting the 10.312 5 Gbit / s inter-chip interconnection transmission channel. The multimode parallel optical interface can support the OM3 optical fiber to meet the requirements of 100 m Even over longer distances; single-mode 40GBASE-LR4 is economical with coarse wavelength division multiplexing (CWDM); 100GBASE-LR4 uses DWDM with 25.781 25 Gbit / s per wavelength and 1 295-1 310 nm wavelength, Fully use the original fiber, integrated technology and cost, the standard selection of technologies are practical and feasible, to help promote the 100G interface in the local and metropolitan area within the commercial.

For the whole network of use, serial 100GE transmission standard and technology before maturity can use the reverse multiplexing technology. 100GE services of 10 × 10GE or 4 × 25GE interfaces are adapted to OTU2 / OTU3 through ODU2 / ODU3 and transmitted through multiple wavelengths in 10G / 40G optical networks. It is possible to eliminate the need to redesign and modify existing 10G / 40G DWDM optical networks. The transmission pattern is still ODB / DRZ / EPR – Differential Quadrature Phase Shift Keying Control (eRZ-DQPSK). This model can be used 10G / 40G existing mature optoelectronic devices, and the entire system performance and 10G / 40G system consistent. This scheme can realize the smooth network upgrade, meet the operator’s cost expectation, and the device is ripe [10].

Therefore, the current cost and demand point of view, 100 Gigabit Ethernet commercial first in the metropolitan area network is more feasible solution, because in the MAN, a lot of data on the road at any time, without a variety of compensation Device transmission system will greatly simplify the network design, 100 Gigabit Ethernet just to meet this demand, while high bandwidth to meet the metropolitan area network 40% annual traffic growth. In a word, the development demand of 100 Gigabit Ethernet has already been obvious, and the cost advantage will also be strengthened constantly. However, the transmission of 100 Gigabit Ethernet transmissions needs constant technical improvement from modulation mode to operation management and maintenance.

In addition to this technology upgrade, in addition to 100 Gigabit Ethernet, other protocols, including Fiber Channel, Infiniband and SONET, will also appear in 40/100 Gbit / s networks. In the late 1990s, Ethernet ports Equipment prices have dropped more than twice as fast as competitive ATM and Fiber Distributed Data Interface (FDDI). However, 40 Gbit / s and faster networks share many of the same FPGAs, SERDES, and encoding technologies, making it difficult for any device to achieve cost advantage by mass production. 100G Ethernet may not be as dominant as it used to be.

In general, 100 Gigabit Ethernet technology is a very viable with high-profile technology that everyone is enthusiastic to participate in, but the standards and technologies themselves have yet to mature, and commercial pilots will be launched by the end of 2009 but mature commercial is expected to be beyond 2012.

In addition to the technical and commercial challenges, the opportunities presented are enormous, starting with the opportunity for research institutes to discover and innovate; bringing new, high-return markets to component and module suppliers (but also requires high investment); For system suppliers is a comeback and take this opportunity to lead the market.

As we all know, QSFP28 optical transceiver is considered as the mainstream modules for 100G Ethernet. But how to select QSFP28 optical transceivers for 100G Ethernet? Gigalight is able to provide various kinds of QSFP28 products, including QSFP28 DAC, QSFP28 AOC, and QSFP28 optical transceivers with different interfaces such as 100G SR4 / LR4 / PSM4 / CWDM4 optical transceivers. For more details, please visit its official website.


How Much Do You Know 100G Optical Transceivers

The earliest developed 100G optical module was developed in 2010, which form factor is CFP. At that time, IEEE launched three standards (SR10, LR4 and ER4) for 100G optical modules, separately focusing on the 100m, 10Km and 40Km transmission. Then the IEEE standard added new 100G SR4 project, but in 2013 it did not reach consensus. By 2016, the 100G optical transceiver modules for various data centers mostly used the 25Gbps Serdes program. And the 100G optical modules that use the 50Gbps Serdes plan slowly appeared.

 Main Challenges of 100G Optical Modules

  • Channel Distance: The DWDM system supporting the 50GHz wavelength distance is very extensive. The 100G optical module needs to be satisfied with the condition of supporting the 50GHz wavelength distance, therefore, the pattern of high spectral power should be used.
  • OSNR (optical signal-to-noise ratio): Under the same pattern, 100G optical module requires 10dB higher than 10G optical module and 4dB higher than 40G optical modules. Therefore, a low OSNR tolerance code and high coding gain FEC algorithm.
  • CD margin: Under the same conditions, the dispersion tolerance for 100G optical modules is 1/100 of 10G optical modules, accounting for 40G optical module 16/100. It can use dispersion compensation technology, in the electric field or the optical domain compensation to complete the dispersion compensation for each wavelength.
  • PMD tolerance: Under the same conditions, PMD (polarization mode dispersion) tolerance of 100G optical modules is 1/10 of 10G optical module, accounting for 4/10 of 40G optical module, so you need to choose coherent reception and digital signal processing.
  • Non-linear effects: 100G optical module than 10G / 40G optical module nonlinear effects more messy.

Main Types of 100G Optical Transceivers

According to the different form factors, 100G optical modules mainly include the several types:  CFP / CFP2 / CFP4, CXP and QSFP28. Among all of them, CFP / CFP2 / CFP4 and CXP are form factors of early 100G optical modules and QSFP28 are new generation of form factor for 100G optical modules.

With the advantages of high port density, low power consumption & cost and so on, it has gradually become the mainstream 100G optical module form factor. There are four main types of 100G QSFP28 optical transceivers, including 100G QSFP28 SR4, 100G QSFP28 LR4, 100G QSFP28 PSM4, and 100G QSFP28 CWDM4. The principle of the 100G QSFP28 optical module is similar to that of the 40G QSFP + optical module. The 100G optical signal is transmitted in 4 × 25 Gbps mode.

All of the 100G optical transceivers can be founded in Gigalight. It focuses on the development of optical communication products, not only many types of 100G optical modules, but also in accordance with the requirements of users to customize the 100G optical modules with satisfactory conditions.



What Are 100G QSFP28 CWDM4/PSM4 Optical Transceivers

Whether in optical networks or in date centers, optical transceivers play important roles. Optical transceivers are composed by optoelectronic devices, functional circuits and optical interfaces. Optoelectronic devices include sending and receiving. In a word, optical transceivers are used for optics and electrics conversion. The sender converts an electrical signal into an optical signal, which is transmitted by an optical fiber, which converts the optical signal into an electrical signal.

We know that 100G optical transceivers are available in several package types, including CFP / CFP2 / CFP4, CXP and QSFP28. Among these different 100G packages, the QSFP28 optical transceiver is the primary packaging option for 100G networks due to its high port density, low power consumption, and low cost.

Today, we will introduce two 100G optical transceivers: 100G QSFP28 CWDM4 optical transceiver and 100G QSFP28 PSM4 optical transceiver module.

100G QSFP28 CWDM4 optical transceiver is designed for optical communications applications that meet the QSFP MSA, CWDM4 MSA, and IEEE P802.3bm standards. This module converts 4 input channels of 25Gb / s electronic data into 4 CWDM optical signal channels and multiplexes them into a single channel for 100Gb / s optical transmission. Instead, at the receiving end, the module multiplexes 100 Gb / s optical input into 4 channels of the CWDM optical signal and converts it into electrical data for 4 output channels.

The 100G QSFP28 PSM4 optical transceiver is four-channel parallel optical transmission, support 100G or 40G Ethernet, Infiniband DDR / EDR. It is integrated four data channels for a total of 104 Gbps bandwidth, 26Gbps per channel, transmission distance of up to 2 km using G.652 SMF, the use of wavelength 1310nm for transmission. The electrical interface uses a 38PIN Edge connector. The optical interface uses a single-mode, 12-pin MTP (MPO) connector.

I believe we all see a clear difference between the two: CWDM4 and PSM4. What do these two mean?

100G CWDM4 optical transceiver:

100G CWDM4 is a multi-source protocol (MSA). The 100G CWDM4 optical transceiver introduces WDM technology and uses a duplex LC interface. The transmission distance can be up to 2km when used with single-mode optical fibers and is widely used in CATV, FTTH (Fiber to the Home), 1G and 2G Fiber Channel, Fast and Gigabit Ethernet, Synchronous Optical Network SONET OC-3 (155Mbps), OC- 12 (622Mbps) and OC- 48 (2.488Gbps), Security and Protection System and other fields.

100G PMS4 optical transceiver:

100Gbps PMS4 standards set by the MSA group. This standard defines a low-cost solution for interconnecting long-haul data centers. As data centers grow further in size and fiber transmission rates increase, people need a low-cost solution that can deliver distances of not less than 500 meters. The 100Gbps PSM4 standard was developed to provide a parallel single-mode infrastructure for the service needs of next-generation data centers.

Want to know more information about 100G QSFP28 optical transceivers? please visit the official website: Gigalight.

SFP, SFP + and XFP: What Are the Differences

In current optical communication market, there are various kinds of optical transceivers which come in various form factors at speeds from 100Mbps to 100Gbps and are fully compliant with the MSA and IEEE 802.3 standards. Some of the more popular form factors are SFP, SFP +, XFP, GBIC, QSFP, QSFP28 and QSFP-DD. In this post, we will mainly discuss SFP, SFP + and XFP optical transceivers, the main differences among them will be covered in the following parts.

Definition of SFP:

When we discuss what SFP is, SFP stands for Small Form-Factor Pluggable, a compact, hot-pluggable transceiver that can be used in the ports of telecommunications and data communications equipment. SFP modules are designed to support SONET, Gigabit Ethernet, Fiber Channel and other optical communication standards. Due to its small size and improved performance in conjunction with higher speeds, the module has displaced the universally applicable GBIC transceivers and is therefore sometimes referred to as a mini-GBIC.

As an interchangeable fiber connector that can adapt to any existing network, SFP makes network maintenance a lot easier. SFP transceiver modules allow a higher port density (number of transceivers per cm along the edge of a motherboard). These modules are not standardized by a state agency, but specified by a multi-source agreement (MSA), which has been adopted by various manufacturers. Some network component manufacturers have provided protection to the SFPs, deliberately avoiding compatibility with generic « SFPs » by checking firmware or other areas of programming, whereby only the modules approved by the manufacturer can be used. However, some manufacturers have introduced SFPs with empty programmable EEPROMs that can be reprogrammed to match each supplier ID.

Modern SFP transceiver modules also come with standard Digital Diagnostic Monitoring (DDM) functions, which is also known as Digital Optical Monitoring (DOM). This gives end users the ability to monitor in real time SFP parameters such as optical output, optical input power, temperature, laser current, supply voltage, etc. This functionality can be used to monitor routers, switches, and other optical devices, which can be reprogrammed to match any supplier ID.

Definition of SFP +:

SFP + stands for Small Form-Factor Pluggable Plus. SFP + transceivers are an enhanced version of the SFP that can support data rates up to 16Gbps. The SFP + specification were first published on May 9, 2006 and the first version 4.2 was released on July 6, 2009. As one of the most popular industry standards in optical communication industry, SFP + transceivers are supported by many network component providers. SFP + offers standard 8 Gbps Fiber Channel, 10 Gigabit Ethernet and the Optical Transport Network Standard OTU2.

SFP + transceiver modules have the same dimensions as the SFP. The big difference between the SFP and SFP + modules is the coding method. These modules have more circuitry on the host board than the internal module. SFP + modules can also be used in older devices with XENPAK or X2 ports through the use of an active electronic adapter. SFP + modules come in two types linear and limited. Linear SFP + modules are best for 10GBase-LRM, otherwise limited modules are preferred. These contain a signal amplifier to redesign the degraded (received) signal, whereas linear modules do not.

Definition of XFP:

XFP stands for 10 Gigabit Small Form Factor Pluggable, a hot-swappable and protocol independent module. It enables a fast transmission of data in the computer network. XFP was devised by the XFP Multi-source Agreement Group and first emerged in the year 2002 along with XFI, one of its electrical components.

XFP transceiver modules are protocol-independent and fully compliant to various standards, including: 10G Ethernet, 10G Fibre Channel, SONET OC-192, SDH STM-64 and OTN G.709. It supports bit rate from 9.95G through 11.3G, along with its interface to other electrical components which is called XFI. The 10-Gigabit XFP transceiver module is a hot-swappable I/O device that plugs into 10-Gigabit ports.XFP transceiver modules connects the electrical circuitry of the system with the optical network.

SFP package — hot-plug small- package module, the highest rate is up to 4G , usually LC interface connect.
SFP + package — standard package, the working speed can be 10G, the application of 10G Ethernet.
XFP — standardized package of serial 10G optical transceiver modules.

The Difference between SFP and SFP +:

1. The look and the size of the SFP and SFP + are the same;
2. The highest rate of SFP is up to 4G is the rate of SFP + 10G;
3. The protocol specification of the SFP: SFP: IEEE802.3, SFF-8472;
4. SFP + supports DDM .

The Difference between SFP + and XFP:

1. SFP + and XFP both are 10G optical module , and can be connected with other types of 10G modules;
2. The look and the size of the SFP + is less than XFP;
3. Because of the smaller size, SFP + moves the signal modulation function, serial / deserialization program, MAC, clock and data recovery ( CDR ) and electronic distribution compensation ( EDC ) function to the motherboard card from modules;
4. Compliance agreement of XFP: MSA XFP agreement;
5. Compliance Agreement of SFP +: IEEE 802.3ae, SFF-8431, SFF-8432;
6. SFP + is a mainstream design;
7. The Protocol Specification of SFP +: IEEE 802.3ae, SFF-8431, and SFF-8432.

10G optical module underwent the development of 300Pin, XENPAK, X2, XFP, which finally realize that the transmission of 10G signal with the same size as SFP, this is SFP +. SFP + met the requirements of the high-density optical module, gradually replacing XFP and become the mainstream of the 10G market. People around the world learn the difference between SFP, SFP + and XFP, and avoid unnecessary hassles to the customer, so we provide some information for them.

In the above, we mainly discussed what is SFP, SFP + and XFP as well as the main difference between them. After learning the difference between SFP, SFP + and XFP, people are able to avoid unnecessary hassles to the customer. This is why we are dedicated to bring important information about optical transceivers to all of you.


Qu’est-ce que le multiplexage en longueur d’onde (WDM) et ses principaux avantages

Dans la même fibre optique en même temps à deux ou plusieurs signaux de longueur d’onde optique à travers différents canaux optiques pour transmettre des informations, on parle de technologie de multiplexage par répartition en longueur d’onde (WDM). Ici, nous allons vous montrer ce qu’est le multiplexage par répartition en longueur d’onde (WDM) et les principaux avantages de WDM.

Qu’est-ce que le multiplexage en longueur d’onde (WDM)?

Le multiplexage par répartition en longueur d’onde optique comprend le multiplexage par répartition en fréquence et le multiplexage par répartition en longueur d’onde. La technologie de multiplexage par répartition en fréquence optique (FDM) et la technologie de multiplexage par répartition en longueur d’onde optique (WDM) ne sont pas significativement différentes, car l’onde lumineuse fait partie de l’onde électromagnétique. La fréquence de la lumière et la longueur d’onde ont une seule correspondance. Généralement, on comprend également que le multiplexage par répartition de fréquence optique se réfère à la répartition des fréquences optiques. Les canaux optiques sont très denses. Le multiplexage optique par répartition en longueur d’onde fait référence à la fraction grossière des fréquences optiques, avec des trajets multiples optiques espacés et même à différentes fenêtres de fibres optiques.

Le multiplexage par répartition en longueur d’onde (WDM) est généralement appliqué aux multiplexeurs et démultiplexeurs à division d’onde (également appelés combinateurs / démultiplexeurs), qui sont placés respectivement aux deux extrémités de la fibre optique pour réaliser le couplage et la séparation des différentes ondes lumineuses. Le principe de ces deux appareils est le même. Les principaux types de multiplexeur à division de longueur d’onde optique sont le type à fusible fondu, le type diélectrique, le type à trame et le type plat. Les principales caractéristiques des indicateurs sont la perte d’insertion et l’isolement. D’une manière générale, l’augmentation de la perte de liaison optique est appelée perte d’insertion de multiplexage par répartition en longueur d’onde après que le dispositif WDM est utilisé dans la liaison optique. Lorsque la longueur d’onde 11, 12 est transmise à travers la même fibre optique et que le séparateur dans la borne d’entrée l2 puissance et 11 puissance de sortie mixte de la fibre optique est appelée la différence entre les degrés d’isolement.

La ligne de communication à fibres optiques peut être divisée en dispositifs de multiplexage / démultiplexage de longueur d’onde. Selon le nombre de longueurs d’onde de multiplexage, il peut être divisé en deux longueurs d’onde multiplexeur et multiplexeur à longueurs d’onde multiples. Selon l’intervalle entre les longueurs d’onde de multiplexage, il peut être divisé en multiplexeur à division de longueur d’onde grossière (CWDM) et multiplexeur à répartition en longueur d’onde dense (DWDM) pour utilisation dans divers systèmes de multiplexage par répartition en longueur d’onde et amplificateurs à fibre optique. Il existe différents types de produits CWDM et DWDM dans l’industrie de la communication optique, tels que CWDM SFP, CWDM MUX / DEMUX et DWDM MUX / DEMUX et ainsi de suite.

La technologie de multiplexage par répartition en longueur d’onde est largement utilisée dans la communication optique et l’interconnexion actuelles. Et il y a beaucoup d’avantages de WDM dans la communication optique. Certaines caractéristiques techniques et avantages du multiplexage par répartition en longueur d’onde optique sont les suivants:

Principaux avantages de WDM dans la communication optique

1. Utiliser pleinement la bande à faible perte de la fibre optique pour augmenter la capacité de transmission de la fibre optique et doubler la limite physique de transmission de l’information à travers une fibre optique. À l’heure actuelle, nous utilisons juste une très petite partie du spectre de perte optique (1310nm-1550nm). Le multiplexage par répartition en longueur d’onde peut tirer pleinement parti de l’énorme bande passante de la fibre optique monomode à environ 25THz et d’une bande passante de transmission suffisante.

2. La possibilité de transmettre deux ou plusieurs signaux non synchronisés dans la même fibre optique facilite la compatibilité entre les signaux numériques et les signaux analogiques, et n’a rien à voir avec le débit binaire et le mode de modulation, et peut facilement supprimer ou joindre des canaux au milieu de la ligne.

3. Pour les câbles à fibres optiques déjà construits, en particulier ceux avec peu de cœurs posés tôt, aussi longtemps que le système d’origine dispose d’une marge de puissance, il peut être davantage compatibilisé pour réaliser la transmission de multiples signaux unidirectionnels ou bidirectionnels sans utiliser le Système original De grands changements, avec une forte flexibilité.

4. En raison d’une réduction importante de la quantité de fibre optique utilisée, le coût de construction est considérablement réduit. En raison du petit nombre de fibres optiques, il est également rapide et facile à récupérer en cas de panne.

5. Le partage d’équipements optiques actifs réduit le coût de la transmission de plusieurs signaux ou augmente les nouveaux services.

6. Les dispositifs actifs dans le système ont été considérablement réduits, améliorant ainsi la fiabilité du système. Actuellement, en raison des exigences des émetteurs optiques, des récepteurs optiques et d’autres équipements pour le multiplexage par répartition en longueur d’onde optique de multiples porteuses, la mise en œuvre de la technologie présente un certain degré de difficulté. Dans le même temps, l’application du câble optique multiconducteur ne semble pas particulièrement rare pour les services traditionnels de diffusion et de télévision. Donc, l’application réelle de WDM n’est pas beaucoup. Cependant, avec le développement du service de télévision par câble intégré, la demande croissante de bande passante réseau, la mise en œuvre de divers services sélectifs, et la prise en compte des coûts économiques de mise à niveau du réseau, etc., les caractéristiques et avantages de la GDE apparaissent progressivement. Système de transmission par CATV, montrant une large gamme de possibilités d’application, et même affectent le développement du modèle de réseau CATV.

Ce qui précède est principalement sur ce qu’est le multiplexage par répartition en longueur d’onde (WDM) et ses principales caractéristiques et avantages pour la communication optique. L’ère de la communication optique arrive et il ne fait aucun doute que la technologie de multiplexage par répartition en longueur d’onde sera plus largement utilisée dans la communication et la transmission par fibre optique à l’avenir. De nombreux fabricants d’optique, comme Gigalight, saisissent également cette opportunité de sortir un grand nombre de produits WDM pour une communication par fibre optique plus rapide et plus facile.